Classical security concepts

Terminology sequence: weakness -> vulnerability -> attack
Weakness can be introduced into product during these development stages: design -> coding -> configuration -> product usage.

  • Weakness can be a vulnerability.
  • Some vulnerabilities can be used for attack.
  • Attacks is what causes damage to companies.
      Damage can be financial, reputational, …

Threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm.

APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) is a continuous, targeted computer hacking processes, involving various attacks with known vulnerabilities and 0-days.

  • Average hacker’s persistence in infrastructure during APT is 9 months.
  • Majority of company’s breaches are started with: phishing or watering hole attack.
  • Mitigation:

    • company should implement defense mechanisms for its protection
    • company should take measures in area of damage minimization

Duck-hunting attack - compromisation using physical intrusion. (e.g. hacker came into company with malicious usb stick, did smth tricky and went out).

Intruder model:

  • external (not companie’s employee / ousider)

    • intruder has no access to system
    • intruder has unprivileged access to system
    • intruder has privileged access to system
  • internal (companie’s employee)

    • intruder has unprivileged access to system
    • intruder has privileged access to system

CIA - information security (wikipedia) key concepts:

  • Confidentiality
  • Integrity
  • Availability


  • Authentication
  • Authorization
  • Accounting

STRIDE (model of threats developed by Microsoft):

  • Spoofing of user identity
  • Tampering
  • Repudiation
  • Information disclosure (privacy breach or data leak)
  • Denial of service (DoS)
  • Elevation of privilege

Types of access control rules:

  • Discretionary access control
  • Mandatory access control
  • Role-based access control (RBAC)

BAD principle: Security through obscurity
GOOD principle: Strict access control (+ isolation (e.g. VPN, firewall)) (minimal privileges concept)

Searching for vulnerabilities:

  • manual audit
  • security scanners
  • source-code analysis (static, dynamic)
  • monitoring systems (log analysis)
  • fuzzing

Making yourself less vulnerable / securing yourself:

  • Known vulnerabilities:

    • get security updates in a regular manner
    • resolve security issues (came from IT department, SOC, …)
  • Unknown vulnerabilities and threats:

    Implement various security solutions: IDS, IPS, WAF, AntiVirus, SOC (SIEM, DLP, IRP, …) …

Networking, defence in depth
concept: defense exists on every level (DMZ-vs-internal is an old concept)

  • perimeter defense (Firewall, IDS, IPS, …)
  • defense inside (IPsec, TLS, …)
  • devices/hosts defense (patching, antiviruses, …)
  • enryption, access rights, minimal privileges principle
  • attack-surface minimization
  • if possible: out of band management (isolated network for administrators)

Technical audit concepts

Comparison of application security testing approaches

Approaches in providing penetration testing:

  • blackBox - nothing is known about system, usually an external pentest
  • greybox - some information about system is known, can be external or internal pentest
  • whitebox - more a security assessment rather than a pentest (with access to source code, configurations, …)

Types of technical service:

  • Penetration Testing (pentest)
  • Security Analysis
  • Vulnerability Scanning
  • Red Team Assessment
  • Blue Team
  • Purple Team
  • Security Audit (not technical)

(RU) Взломайте нас, чтобы было красиво
Тестирование на проникновение vs Редтиминг vs Анализ защищенности vs
Сканирование уязвимостей vs Аудит безопасности

Attacker’s entry points:

  • client’s devices (theft / hacking) (smartphone / laptop / wifi-router / …)
  • server side service (hacking) with sensitive information
  • infrastructure (free-wifi / guest-wifi / internet-cafe / …)
  • social engineering (malicious email / run executable / insert flash-card / …)
  • attack from inside (intentional / unintentional) (employee foolishness / ex-admin / outsource IT administration / …)

Cyber Kill-Chain model:

  1. reconnaissance - harvesting e-mail addresses, conference information, …
  2. weaponization - coupling exploit backdoor into deliverable payload
  3. delivery - delivering weaponized bundle to the victim via e-mail, web, usb, …
  4. exploitation - exploiting a vulnerability to execute code on victim’s system
  5. installation - installing malware on the asset
  6. Command and Control (C2) - command channel for remote manipulation of victim’s system
  7. Action on Objectives - the attacker performs the steps to achieve his actual goals inside the victim’s network
    This is active attack process that takes months, and thousands of small steps, in order to achieve

Perimeter-focused defences (e.g. firewalls, sandboxes, antiviruses) cannot provide 100% protection.
Harden your inside security (minimal privileges concept, updates, …) and use breach detection systems.

Postexploitation workflow:

  • Collect information about system
  • Privilege escalation
  • Credentials collection
  • Installation (fixation in system)
  • Concealment
  • Destructive actions

Business related concepts


  • devices
  • applications
  • network
  • data
  • people

Every process TOP 5 best practices

  1. don’t overcarry
  2. don’t undercarry
  3. principle of “least access”
  4. keep documented, controle and manage
  5. create “bad day plan”

What business can undertake:

  • implement SDL (Secure Development Lifecycle)
  • run bug-bounty programs / pay for pentests and security assessments
  • build SIEM
  • be compliant with best practices / standards
  • develop and implement secure companie’s processes

Possible pentest input data:

  • network segmentation (users, DMZ, processing, technology)
  • ACL / firewall
  • available applications / DBMS (production and testing)
  • wifi-networks
  • user’s blocking

Pentest report must contain:

  • executive summary
  • scope of work and limitations
  • description of the system under test - artifact of our own analysis at the end of the project
  • risk analysis - agreed with the client before tests
  • findings & recommendations
  • conclusions

Information is an asset which has value and must be protected.

  • Assets:

    • individual-related:

      • credentials for various resources
      • personal data (name, date of birth, …)
      • information on the activities and assets of the individual (including social relations)
      • own data (pictures, documents, programs, …)
    • business-related:

      • database data (e.g. employer’s data, customers’s data, product’s data, …)
      • corporate secrets (e.g. developed source code, …)
      • data of processes support system
      • licenses
  • Threats:

    • data/money theft/loss
    • publication of data (reputation concerns)
    • DoS (availability issues)
  • Attackers:

    • script kiddies
    • Advanced hackers (APT)
    • Insiders

Possible targets:

  • governments: IS - critical, budget - unlimited
  • big-organizations: IS - business, budget - limited
  • small-organizatins/private security: IS - personal data, budget - none

    • dozen of employee
    • IT companies: no administrators
      (programmers takes admin functions)
    • no budget for security
    • no strict IT-processes
    • small network
    • BYOD - bring your own device
    • data: client’s personal data

Overall threats:

  • disasters: fire, flood, electricity fault, …
    hardware break/theft

    Eliminating risks:

    • move risks to other’s responsibility area (e.g. provider’s)
    • duplication and redundancy
  • administration/update problems
  • hacking

    Eliminating risks:

    • updates
    • Implement security solutions and security processes, …

Eliminating risks:

  • plan in case “everything went wrong”

Technical products concepts

Malware protection methods:

  • code emulation
  • sandboxing (run sample in virtual environment / machines)
  • hueristic analysis
  • behavioral analysis (e.g. syscalls interception)
  • environment virtualization (all changes to disk are temporary until reboot)

Components of complex Wifi security system:

  • access control
  • user’s authentication
  • encryption
  • Wifi intrusion detection system
  • outsider’s devices detection
  • monitor radio interference and DoS
  • monitor vulnerabilities at wireless network
  • increase security level (e.g., management frame protection, …)

    • authentication and authorization (X.509) (в россии об аутентификации есть ФЗ для публичных WiFi сетей)
    • configure vlan for traffic separation
    • use firewalls at L2 layer
    • use encryption thoughout network
    • detect integrity violation in network
    • enable security at end-point devices

DLP real time workflow (example based on arcsight)

Two general DLP approaches:

  • system learns some samples of confidential documents, constructs rules for engine and every end-point can filter traffic by classifying it.
    This approach has complex software, however does not require expensive hardware.
    samples: websense (the best, however very expensive, every 3 years you will pay 100% for license)

  • all data collected from proxy, emails, end-points, etc. are stored to high-performance hard drives for further manual analysis. System usually store logs for last several months.
    This approach has simple software, however requires expensive technical equipment (hard drives).
    samples: searchinform, infowatch, …

Leaking assets:

  • general data leak paths:

    • email
    • web-resources (file shares, messengers, …)
    • usb-drives
    • camera photos or videos
    • write something on paper
    • personal will just memorize smth and reproduce it outside
  • leaking data presentation:

    • encrypted archives, docs, …
    • photos
    • The Art Of Forensics


  • simulates easy-to-own server
  • constantly watched by security professionals
  • must be isolated from other network’s resources
  • may discover attack on its first steps
  • allows to study hackers, their methods and toolkit